1. Determine how it is used

Language is the key distinguishing feature for ELLs and as such language in early and elementary school setting are used to determine the oral English help proficiency. This is basically to determine first and second language vocabulary skills and predict. The ELP test is required for the purpose of determining the student’s eligibility for bilingual education services.

An elementary form is administered for students in grades 3-5 while the middle grades form is administered to students in grades 6-8. The tests contain similar item types; extended response or multiple choices and yield scores on four subtests namely speaking, reading, writing and listening. Subtest scores are then combined to form a total composite score.

2. Explain its benefits and drawbacks


Any company that does business in English and employs non-native speakers can use the ELP to learn more about its employees.


There is no ELL standardizing program that is expected to be used repeatedly without a rigorous program of ongoing construct validation.




Summarize five alternative assessment formats

  1. Checklists

There have been a lot of arguments here from different quarters. Authors argue that the failure of 60 years reliance on assessment tests through standardized tests to help reduce achievement score gaps should compel all stakeholders to rethink on the role of the assessments. Evidence from all over the world indicates that reduced achievement score gaps but with a strong achievement gains when teachers implement student involved classroom assessment practices. This paper will briefly summarize five standards of sound classroom assessment practices that, if put into practice, will permit teachers and schools to tap an untapped reservoir of motivation which will end up benefiting students especially the one seen as slow or low performers.

  1. Reviewing

This is a “what we have learnt” sort of discussion. The main aim here is to assess a single happening, say, for example a field trip. Teachers are then to review all lessons to establish a closure. Students are also to be engaged in reviewing weak and strong samples to be able to determine attributes of good performance product.

  1. Records

A record can be defined a collection of written observations of students that is related to their progress in learning. Students can be used in record keeping to teaching the lessons. This encourages the learners to monitor their improvements over time through a repeated self-assessment process. For example, this written account of observations may be kept in a separate notebook or included in a student’s portfolio


  1. Portfolio

Portfolio refers to a collection of samples of a student’s work used to give evidence of progress in learning. Portfolios are an opportunity for students to provide documentation of their learning activities, ideas and reflections. They can help students take more responsibility for their own learning. By making decisions about what to include in their portfolios, students become knowledge producers rather than knowledge receivers. As students build growth portfolio of evidence of their success over time, they can easily reflect on the changes they see and can easily gain a sense of control over their own learning. This is especially a very powerful confidence builder in students. Portfolio is not supposed to be an easy alternative to honest assessment or a gimmick used to substitute for testing. If the portfolio is taken seriously, applied with skill and intelligence, it can become a teacher’s valuable tool,

  1. Conference

The school can be used as the setting where a number of conferences can take place. A peer conference can be composed of a group of five to six students who meet together to assess the written work of the group members. Here, students can provide help, feedback, and other ideas to each other in a non-threatening atmosphere, before work is turned in the teacher for grading. We can also have teacher-student conference held on concerning the student’s educational progress. This is a breakthrough in communicating about student achievement, by students telling the story of their own success story.


Standardized Testing and Language Proficiency

I believe that standardized testing and language proficiency is not a workable method for monitoring student progress in general.  While standardized tests are easy to administer, easy to score and easy to interpret, they do not provide teachers with all the information they need to make decisions about their students’ especially on instructional needs or progress. In addition, I believe that viewing content as the only component of the curriculum is an incomplete and shortsighted position.














Stiggins, R and Chappuis, J. (n.d.). Using student-involved classroom assessment to close achievemtn gaps. Theory into practice, 44 1, 11-18

non-relativist points of view

Review this unit’s required readings, paying special attention to the section on relativism.
In a Word document, write a short essay responding to the following:

Identify 2-3 situations in which it’s less socially acceptable to express non-relativist points of view on some subjects than others and explain why that might be.
Do you think society expects people in some professions to express objectivist or ethical relativism viewpoints more than others? Explain.
Would you prefer to live in a society that places less emphasis on ethical relativism and objectivist viewpoints? Why or why not?

Save and submit your work to your instructor.



Non- relativist points of view give us the rational way of thinking about matters which we do not otherwise. In the matters related to matrimonial alliances, generally, non-relativist points of view are not appreciated. Similarly, in the matters of religion and in the matters related to money and wealth these views are often discouraged. Suddenly in such situation people turn very principled and they keep repeating about values to be observed in matters without thinking a bit of their relevance. These values set by the society often work as hindrances. Views keep shaping up and sometimes they are not expressed fully leading to confusion. The society has set norms and everyone is judged on those parameters no matter what the subject is. Non relativist points of view have always remained a debatable topic.


Yes, society does expect people to remain objective in their views because it is human nature to have favoritism and being biased towards something or someone. Matters like education and at the workplace people should remain free from bias similarly in judiciary the decision makers should not show biasness of any kind in their decision making. Objectivity is difficult to bring in because humans are not meant that way. It happens that we, when stuck in particular situations, start acting in a manner that shows biasness which is criticized by some and is not accepted by the society members. Ethical and moral shackles tend to limit our actions and sometimes we are not able to justify them. Freedom in its true sense is required for one to let out his feelings.


I would like to live in a society where objectivity is preferred because then people would not have fear expressing their thoughts. There would be freedom of expression and people would get a chance to live the way they want to. Ethical relativism does not let people be free in their views and it only serves to disturb peace in society. In today’s world which is full of chaos such concepts have become obsolete and we should get away with them as soon as possible. It is then only that we would be getting ahead in its true sense. Also, to the next generation we would be giving a rich culture to cherish all their lives.





Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman, 1981, Culture Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.


Kluckhohn, C., 1955, Ethical Relativity: Sic et Non. Journal of Philosophy 52:663-77.

Cognitive Psychology

Description of Visual Information Processing

Vision information processing is the series of steps taken by information when it flows from visual sensors to cognitive processing.  It is considered to be the ability to give meaning to what is visible.  A very good visual information processing implies the ability of an individual to analyze what is visible accurately and quickly and store it in the memory.  Visual information processing is very important and enables an individual to accurately interact with the environment and stimuli with which an individual is exposed.  It is a proven fact that information processing starts from the eye. This is because the retina is considered as the extension of the brain and the rods and cones synapses with the retina.

For perfect and optimum visual information processing, it is imperative to have a directional response which is completely accurate and automatic.  The power of information processing develops gradually as children learn to relate to sidedness of their own body while projecting the understanding of direction into the processing of coded information.   People with low visual information processing need vision therapy to enable them enhance their visual perception skills; this will enable them to accurately process the information that they receive with the movement of the eye and to share this information in the exact sequences.

In visual information processing, it is the eye that receives visual codes and information and it coverts it into an electric neural activity that is fed back into the brain where it is coded and stored. The stored information can be used by other parts of the body particularly the brain and other parts that relate to the mental activities such as perception, memory and attention.   Visual information processing characterizes thinking as the environment provides data which is transformed by the senses. This information is stored and retrieved and transformed by the use of mental programs; the results are behavioral responses.

When the retina is hit by visual information; this is when we open our eyes, information processing starts immediately. The retina by itself is considered as a part of processing system.  When light enters into the eye, it has works itself into the retinal, bipolar, amacrine and horizontal cells to enable the light reach our eyes. The light is received by cones and rods which can send the information back into the eyes using the layer of cells. The axons of retinal ganglion cells form the optic nerve which is considered as the highway that visual information is transported into the brain (Szczepkowski, 1977).


Explain two conditions that impair visual information processing

There are certain visual that contribute to the ability of an individual to develop an impaired visual information processing. The two common conditions that impair with visual information processing are explained below.


Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI)

This is a permanent visual impairment disorder that resulted from disturbance of posterior visual pathways and occipital lobes of brain. The degree of the visual impairment resulting from cortical visual impairment ranges from severe impairment of the vision to complete blindness.  The neurological damage and visual impairment from the cortical visual impairment depends on onset time and the location and intensity of the effect.  This is a condition that indicates the visual impairment of the visual system hence hindering the brain from consistency comprehending what the eye can see. This is not however an indicator of the cognitive ability of the child.  This disorder is caused by lack of enough oxygen in the red blood cells or when there is no enough blood supply to the brain.  Other infections of the brain or the central nervous system can contribute to this disorder and subsequently impairment.

Also known as the cerebral visual impairment, it is visual information processing impairing disorder that is caused by brain damage.   Its difference with other visual impairing disorders is that it does not interfere with the structures of the optic nerve but it instead interferes with visual processing centers and visual pathways of the brain.  It affects the visual center of the brain.

Myopia is another condition that impairs with visual information processing. It results when the eye becomes too long for the optical system; in this event the light rays converge and become focused before reaching the retina. Beyond this point, they diverge and go out of focus and by the time they arrive at the retina, the images will have become blurred.  Distant objects often appear blurred but objects that are near are clearly visible.  This is however a temporary measure and can be rectified by the use of spectacles.  The spectacles should be prescribed by a trained medical officer since they will be used to enhance magnification and to correct the shortsightedness in the individual.  Myopia negatively impacts on the ability of the individual to coordinate visual information processing. The spectacles given to the individuals will give them maximum vision that is required for a certain magnification in order to aid the convergence ability of the viewer to process visual information (Carlston, 2013).


Current trends in the research of visual information processing and how they advance understanding of visual information processing

Research on current trends in visual information processing includes the recognition of objects, perception of motion, representation of underlying mental imagery and the processing of visually presented text.  The schematic and general view of visual information involves visual input which enters into the system and subjected to various processing operations.  Visual information processing involves the construction of internal representation of visual which may or may not contain the information in the input itself.  The internal representation is used to guide responses.  There has been a controversial debate on the need of processing operations. Key among this question is whether or not the processing of visual input occurs in series or in parallel as well as the duration of visual information processing.  These key questions have attracted a lot of debate and it is a major area of research. Much of this research concerns the changes in the coded form of visual input.  In this case, visual stimuli are conceptualized as concatenations of features or elementary attributes.  Visual processing is based on the structure of the information that is being processed and that different types of processes virtually interact in interpreting complex visual display.  The idea that analysis of independent features is pattern is inadequate to explain the fact that visual processing is hardly a novel idea.

When explaining the effects of organizational variables on visual information processing, a problem that is hard arises and this concerns various locus of organizational effects.  Visual information processing is influenced by the structural property of the visual display that is being processed and it also happens in the presence of certain configuration of information.  The explanation accompanying the nature of visual information is wanting but the structural effects will emerge as a consequence of certain processing demands but not as consequence of others.  Much of this research has been dedicated to the specificity and nature of the input; the information that comes from the processing system.  Research on componential approach has characterized cognitive psychology and it is the important aspect of this approach that is considered as the realization that even simple tasks involve various aspects of information processing (Soraci & Murata-Soraci, 2003).




Carlston, D. E. (2013). The Oxford handbook of social cognition.

Soraci, S. J., & Murata-Soraci, K. (2003). Visual information processing. Westport: Conn.

Szczepkowski, K. (1977). A visual information processing approach to the study of visual communication. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin.


Biology Homework

Part 1

Consider the nutritional value of a meal that you have recently eaten, and answer the following questions:

  • In terms of the major biological molecules of carbohydrates, fats, and protein, were your meal balanced and healthful?

I had a good meal of   sprouts, whole grain bread, a good portion of chicken and a highly nutritious fruit drink.  The meal was balanced in terms of all components and very healthy.

  • What are some of the other components, such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and so forth, that was beneficial?

The orange juice that I had was a rich source of antioxidant .All the whole grain meal and wheat that I had were rich sources of minerals. On the whole every component of the minerals and vitamins were satisfied. The sprouted grains and vegetables were rich stores of minerals and vitamins.

  • Were there some components that are considered bad for your health? Explain.

The only bad element of the meal was the fried chicken. There was heavy element of vegetable oil in the fry and hence the fat content could be considered to be unhealthy aspect of food that I had eaten.

  • How could you make your meal healthier?

I can make my meal healthier if I go in for an oven roasted dry chicken. I can just garnish it with low fat butter to make the chicken taste good.

Compare the nutritional value of your meal with that of one or more classmate.

My meal was much more nutritional and healthier than my class mates. I am very conscious about what I eat. Though I occasionally do eat junk and fast food I ensure that my next meal is sparsely eaten. My class mates do eat very fatty foods which are neither healthy nor balanced. I have a good mix of nutrition and health in my diet.

Part 2

Discuss the following:

  • Did you have something to drink with your meal? Most beverages contain water. Explain how having water with your meal aids in the breakdown of the meal’s molecules.

Though water should not be taken with meal generally I prefer to have a freshly made seasonally fruit juice. When water in the fruit juice is taken with meals it helps in thinning the meal and allows for easy absorption into the blood.  It is also suggested that the fruit juice should be at room temperature to allow for easy digestion of food.

  • What was the water content of the foods that you ate?

The water content of the foods were the yoghurt, the gravy in the curry and the water in the cooked kidney beans along with the fresh fruit juice .

  • Were there other ingredients in your drink that influence your health, such as vitamins, alcohol, sugar, or caffeine? Explain benefits or drawbacks.

Vitamins are a very important for health hence vitamins in the form of soup and stock of vegetables can be had with meals.  Alcohol is to be strictly avoided while having meals. Every fruit has its own content of natural sugar so use of additional sweeteners causes reverse actions. Caffeine in coffee is also to be avoided.

  • Discuss the best nutritional choices for beverages.

The best nutritional choices for beverages are fresh fruit juices and a hot cup of freshly brewed tea.